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February 2012 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

Global Climate Models and Simulating the Arctic: How do They Perform in the Cold? (1 Feb 2012)
A recent study of the Arctic using a suite of general circulation models demonstrates that while the models do a good job in simulating the climate in this region, there were some important differences. The models tend to produce too much sea ice, and as a result the air masses tend to have a cold bias and are a bit more humid. However, validation of models in the Arctic can also be hampered by lack of observations, which in turn can make modeling more difficult in the first place... Read More
On the Potential Extinction of High-Elevation Species (1 Feb 2012)
If the world were to begin warming again, would Earth's high-altitude plants and animals find themselves "in danger of being pushed off the planet," as NASA's James Hansen has claimed they would be?... Read More
Late Holocene Climate on the Korean Peninsula (1 Feb 2012)
Once again, a climate proxy shows there is nothing incredibly unusual or unnatural about the Earth's current level of warmth... Read More
The Last Half of 20th-Century European Forest Growth (1 Feb 2012)
According to the authors, 61% of the change in net ecosystem productivity was attributed to changes in CO2, while only 26% was attributed to changes in climate, and 13% to changes in forest age structure... Read More
Precipitation within the Waikato Region of New Zealand (1 Feb 2012)
Results of this study show there is no evidence for the projections of Trenberth and the IPCC over a 107-year period -- when climate alarmists claim the world warmed at a rate and to a level of warmth that were unprecedented over the past millennium or more, at least for this important part of New Zealand... Read More
Errors in General Circulation Models: It Could Be "Double" Trouble (7 Feb 2012)
A paper by Liu et al. (2012) examines the common problem of climate models developing a double Inter-tropical Convergence Zone in the central Pacific. The ultimate cause of this in the CCSM model was that early in the simulations, there was too much solar radiation getting to the surface. This was due to the way that the model handled cloudiness. Complex interactions then gave rise to the errant circulation pattern. Both the climatology of the tropics and regions across the globe could be impacted... Read More
Young Cucumbers Sprayed with Brassinosteroids and Growing in CO2-Enriched Air (7 Feb 2012)
The application of both phenomena work wonders in promoting the early growth and development of cucumber plants... Read More
Medieval Droughts of the Western United States (7 Feb 2012)
How do they compare with those of the recent past?... Read More
Green Turtle's Mating Habits Protect Against the Effects of Global Warming (7 Feb 2012)
Mating patterns of endangered green sea turtles offset the extremely skewed sex ratios of hatchlings born at high temperatures, which provides them with a mechanism for avoiding extinction due to global warming... Read More
The Progressive Nitrogen Limitation Hypothesis: Notoriously Famous ... but Fading Fast (7 Feb 2012)
Another of the climate alarmists' all-time favorite boogeymen is beginning to be seen as not so frightful or powerful after all... Read More
Recovery of Coral Reef Ecosystems after Degradation by Humans (8 Feb 2012)
Data from the Hawaiian Islands indicate several "recovery periods" in whcih "human societies have interacted sustainably with coral reef environments over long time periods, and that degraded ecosystems may still retain the adaptive capacity and resilience to recover from human impacts"... Read More
Alpine Plants Threatened with Warming-Induced Extinction (8 Feb 2012)
Can phenotypic plasticity save the day?... Read More
Eight Centuries of Climate Change in Northeast Spain (8 Feb 2012)
What do they suggest about the nature of 20th-century global warming? It would appear that the multi-centennial climate oscillation uncovered by Morellon et al. has been driven by a similar oscillation in solar activity, as well as by multi-decadal solar activity fluctuations superimposed upon that longer-period oscillation. And these relationships suggest that there is no compelling need to attribute 20th-century global warming to the concomitant increase in the air's CO2 content. Natural variability appears quite capable of explaining it all... Read More
FACE-Based Crop Responses to Projected CO2 and Climate Changes in Germany (8 Feb 2012)
According to the authors, "without consideration of the CO2 effect, mostly negative impacts on crop yields were simulated" in this study, but that "considering the CO2 effect compensated the negative trend in most cases and turned yield effects to a positive impact"... Read More
Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Coccolithophore Growth and Calcification (8 Feb 2012)
The results of this study "confirm that the expected 3°C increase in the present seawater temperature will not strongly affect the physiology" of the coccolithophore studied, and that "the effect of an elevated pCO2 in seawater will not be significant on calcification or on the PIC:POC ratio in either life stage" either... Read More
A 4000-Year History of Greenland Surface Temperature (14 Feb 2012)
The Greenland summit's decadal warmth of the first ten years of the 21st century was exceeded fully six dozen times over the prior four millennia, demonstrating that current temperatures in this bell-weather region of the Arctic are in no way unusual, unnatural or unprecedented; and, therefore, it is clear that none of Greenland's recent warming need have been caused by increasing greenhouse gases. Indeed, it is far more likely that its recent warmth is nothing more than the next expected phase of the natural oscillation of climate that has produced several-hundred-year periods of alternating warmth and cold over the past four thousand years... Read More
Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on the Antioxidative Properties of a Medicinal Herb (14 Feb 2012)
The medicinal potential of L. pumila was enhanced under elevated CO2, which "simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that was indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against peroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals," which is good news on the future of human health... Read More
Corals vs. Macroalgae in a CO2-Enriched and Warmer World (14 Feb 2012)
According to the researchers who conducted this study, "the macroalgae problem has been exaggerated" such that, "overall," there has been "no general recent trend (i.e., post-1995) toward macroalgal dominance." In fact, they conclude that "macroalgal cover may currently be close to the historical baseline across most of the world"... Read More
Landfalling Tropical Cyclones of the Philippines (14 Feb 2012)
Have they become more or less frequent in response to 20th-century global warming?... Read More
Straight-Line Windstorms of the United States (14 Feb 2012)
In the United States, at least, the global warming of the past half-century or so has had no noticeable impact on the net frequency/ferocity of straight-line windstorms... Read More
Corals Dying from Weather-Induced Heating and Cooling ... But Surviving Climate-Induced Heating and Cooling (15 Feb 2012)
Observations of coral responses to short-term heating and cooling do not reveal what coral responses are to long-term heating and cooling... Read More
The Continuing Demise of the Little Ice Age (15 Feb 2012)
According to the founding director of the International Arctic Research Center of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, the Earth is "still in the process of recovery from the LIA," which is being brought about by whatever was responsible for the mean linear warming of the 20th century, as modulated by a "multi-decadal oscillation of a period of 50 to 60 years" that is superimposed upon it and which "peaked in 1940 and 2000, causing the halting of warming temporarily after 2000"... Read More
Extreme Cold and Deadly European Winter Weather in 2011/12 (15 Feb 2012)
Will similar events continue to occur in the future?... Read More
The Greening of India: AD 1981-2000 (15 Feb 2012)
How green were its ecosystems? ... and how much greener did they become?... Read More
Certifiably-Capable Creatures Coping with Climate Change (21 Feb 2012)
Some organisms are "likely to be responding to climate change through direct genetic responses within populations," which is something the IPCC and other climate alarmist-based reports have failed to investigate or acknowledge... Read More
The Relative Merit of Multiple Climate Models (21 Feb 2012)
Not even a model's close replication of past reality insures that its projections of future reality will prove equally accurate... Read More
North American Mega-Droughts and Global Mega-Warming (21 Feb 2012)
What do they reveal about the current state of Earth's climate? How unprecedented is it?... Read More
A Positive Biological Effect of Tropical Cyclone Activity (21 Feb 2012)
"Given the large extent of a cool wake (100s of km), a tropical cyclone could benefit a much larger area of thermally stressed corals than it would damage, resulting in a 'net cooling benefit'"... Read More
Plant Responses to Recent Warming in the Southern Alps (21 Feb 2012)
Once again, a predicted "biodiversity disaster" fails to show up in the real world... Read More
CO2-Enhanced Nitrogen Fixation to Match CO2-Enhanced Oceanic Productivity (22 Feb 2012)
Earth's oceans are primed to do their part in terms of preserving and protecting the biosphere, as they (1) ramp up their productivity to sustain a greater population of aquatic organisms that may be tapped to supply additional food for the planet's burgeoning human population, and as they (2) remove from the atmosphere and sequester in their sediments ever more carbon, as anthropogenic CO2 emissions continue to rise... Read More
Growth of Water-Stressed Maize and Sorghum Plants (22 Feb 2012)
"Both plants maintained growth better at double-ambient CO2 than their counterparts at ambient CO2 in the presence of drought," such that reductions in total above-ground biomass due to drought were 42% for maize and 36% for sorghum at ambient CO2, but only 18% for maize and 14% for sorghum at double-ambient CO2... Read More
Two Thousand Years of Temperature Change in China (22 Feb 2012)
According to the authors of this study, "it is demonstrated that although human-induced greenhouse effects may have contributed to rapid global warming in the 20th century, in the case of China such rapid decadal to centennial warming has occurred in preindustrial times [bold and italics added]," which significantly weakens the worn-out climate-alarmist claim of late 20th-century warming being unprecedented over the past one to two millennia... Read More
Warm and Cold Winter Temperature Extremes in the Northern Hemisphere (22 Feb 2012)
Some studies, like this one, leave more questions than answers... Read More
Implications of Seasonally-Frozen Eurasian Soil Temperature (28 Feb 2012)
Except for warming during the 1970s and 80s, northern Eurasian temperatures appear to have remained fairly stable since the 1930s... Read More
Global Warming Implications of Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs to the Environment (28 Feb 2012)
An important review paper reveals that "the increase in global warming potential caused by elevated N2O emission due to Nr use in agriculture is completely counteracted by elevated carbon sequestration in non-agricultural systems"... Read More
Global Warming and Extreme Weather Events (28 Feb 2012)
The findings of this paper rebuff the well-worn climate-alarmist claim that global warming will lead to more frequent and severe floods and droughts, based on the logical assumption that if global warming didn't do so in the past thousand or more years, it likely won't do so in the future... Read More
Water Quality and Warming-Induced Coral Bleaching (28 Feb 2012)
According to the author of this study, "a major water quality program effective in reducing ambient dissolved inorganic nitrogen loadings could decrease bleaching probability across the whole range of temperatures predicted for the inshore GBR by 2100"... Read More
Human Presence vs. Climate Change in Antarctica (29 Feb 2012)
In Antarctica, as in essentially every other part of the planet that has ever been visited or inhabited by man, it has been humanity's direct influence on native plants and animals and their immediate environment that has led to their degradation and oftentimes ultimate demise, as opposed to the impact of hypothesized human-induced global climate change... Read More
Birds of New York (29 Feb 2012)
When the going gets hot, do the hot get going? ... as in polewards in latitude?... Read More
Palaeoecology Reveals Real-World Biotic Responses to Global Warming (29 Feb 2012)
The four researchers who conducted this study suggest that "current extinction estimates for the near-future should be revised in light of palaeoecological information, which shows that spatial reorganizations and persistence in suitable microrefugia have been more common than extinction during the Quaternary"... Read More
The Roman Warm Period vs. the Current Warm Period (29 Feb 2012)
With respect to the southern region of Italy examined in this study, it appears that the relatively high temperatures of today are not unique. In fact, they may well be somewhat lower than those that prevailed there during the Roman Warm Period... Read More